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Soil Remediation, SVE, and soil extraction of VOC basics

how soil vapor extraction worksDescription

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) uses vacuum pressure to remove volatile and some semi-volatile contaminants ( VOCs and SVOCs) from the soil. The gas leaving the soil may be treated or destroyed, depending on local and state air discharge regulations. Extraction wells are typically used at depths of 5 feet or greater, and have been successfully applied as deep as 91 meters (300 feet). Groundwater pumps may be used in conjunction with SVE to keep groundwater from rising into the unsaturated zone as a result of vacuum pressure, or to increase the depth of the unsaturated zone. This area, called the capillary fringe, is often highly contaminated, as it holds undissolved chemicals, chemicals that are lighter than water, and vapors that have escaped from the dissolved groundwater below. In soils where the contamination is deep or when there is low permeability, injecting air into the soil helps extraction. During full-scale operation, SVE can be run intermittently (pulsed operation) once the extracted mass removal rate has reached a steady state level. Because the process involves the continuous flow of air through the soil, it often promotes biodegradation of low-volatility organic compounds that may be present.
SVE can also be used on piles of excavated soil. A vacuum is applied to a network of aboveground piping to encourage volatilization of organics from the excavated media. The process includes a system for handling off-gases .

soil remediation system

Limitations and Concerns
Soil with high moisture requires higher vacuums, hindering the operation of the SVE system. Soils with high organic content or soils that are extremely dry have a high sorption capacity of VOCs. These conditions limit the effectiveness of SVE. Soils with low permeability also limit the effectiveness of SVE.
Because SVE applies vacuum pressure to subsurface soils, it can raise groundwater levels. As soil becomes saturated, some contaminants may dissolve into the water. As a result, groundwater could show increases in contamination levels, especially when this process begins.
SVE will not remove heavy oils, metals, PCBs, or dioxins.
Exhaust air from in-situ SVE system may require treatment. Off-gas treatment usually involves vapor-phase Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) .
SVE is not effective in the saturated zone.
A field pilot study is necessary to establish the feasibility of the method as well as to obtain information necessary to design and configure the system.
The technology is typically applicable for soil with VOC and/or fuels contamination. SVE works only on compounds which readily vaporize (i.e., with a high Henry's law constant).
Chân không với việc xử lý ô nhiễm đất và nước ngầm

Soil and Groundwater Remediation 
Remediation techniques include:
Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) and bioventing
On-site treatment for soils contaminated with VOCs and petroleum products
SVE with exhaust control by carbon adsorption or incineration
Groundwater recovery and treatment with carbon adsorption and air stripping
Vacuum-Enhanced Groundwater Extraction (VEGE)
In-site bioremediation
Soil excavation, removal, and disposal
Giới thiệu hệ thống khắc phục đất chân không điển hình
What does a typical soil remediation system look like?
What is soil vapor extraction?
Soil vapor extraction, known as SVE, is the most frequently selected method for treatment of contaminated soil at superfund sites, brown-fields, refineries, gas stations, dry cleaners, and grain elevators. It is a relatively simple process that physically separates contaminants from soil. As the name suggests, SVE extracts contaminants from the soil in vapor form. Therefore, SVE systems are designed to remove contaminants that have a tendency to volatilize or evaporate easily. SVE removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from soil beneath the ground surface in the unsaturated zone-that part of the subsurface located above the water table. By applying a vacuum through a system of underground wells, contaminants are pulled to the surface as vapor or gas. Often, in addition to vacuum extraction wells, air injection wells are installed to increase the air flow and improve the removal rate of the contaminant. An added benefit of introducing air into the soil is that it can stimulate bioremediation of some contaminants.
SVE is sometimes called in situ volatilization, enhanced volatilization, in situ soil venting, forced soil venting, in situ air stripping, or soil vacuum extraction.
What is air sparging?
Used alone, soil vapor extraction cannot remove contaminants in the saturated zone of the subsurface, the water-soaked soil that lies below the water table. At sites where contamination is in the saturated zone, a process called air sparging may be used along with the SVE system. Air Sparging means pumping air into the saturated zone to help flush (bubble) the contaminants up into the unsaturated zone where the SVE extraction wells can remove them.
For air sparging to be successful, the soil in the saturated zone must be loose enough to allow the injected air to readily escape up into the unsaturated zone. Air Sparging, therefore, will work fastest at sites with coarse-grained soil, like sand and gravel.
As with SVE, an added benefit of air sparging is that it provides an oxygen source that helps stimulate the bioremediation of some contaminants. Bioremediation is an innovative treatment technology that uses microorganisms, such as bacteria, that live in the soil or groundwater to break down contaminants into harmless substances. Air Sparging also can be a quick and effective treatment for VOCs in groundwater.
How does an SVE system work?
The first step to constructing an SVE system is to install vapor extraction wells and injection Wells (or air vents) in the contaminated area. Air injection wells use air compressors to force air into the ground. Air vents serve the same function as air injection wells, but are passive-instead of pumping air they just provide a passage for air to be drawn into the ground. When incoming air passes through the soil on its way to the extraction wells, contaminants evaporate out of the spaces between the soil particles and are pulled by the air to the wells and removed.
Vapor extraction wells can be placed either vertically or horizontally. Typically, they are placed vertically and are designed to penetrate the lower portion of the unsaturated zone.
Vapors extracted by the SVE process are typically treated using carbon adsorption, incineration, catalytic oxidation, or condensation. Other methods, such as biological treatment and ultraviolet oxidation, also have been used with SVE systems. The type of treatment chosen depends on which contaminants are present and their concentrations.
Carbon adsorption is the most commonly used treatment for contaminated vapors and is adaptable to a wide range of volatile organic compounds. When properly designed and operated, SVE is a safe, low maintenance process. Explosion-proof equipment is available to handle the potentially explosive mixtures of extracted gas that may be encountered on some landfill or gasoline spill sites.
Why consider SVE or Air Sparging?
SVE is very effective at removing VOCs from the unsaturated zone. With the addition of an air sparging system, contaminants can be removed from the saturated zone as well. Neither technique requires excavation of the contaminated soil. (Excavation is undesirable because it is expensive, creates dust, and allows volatile contaminants to escape untreated into the atmosphere.) The extracted vapors usually require treatment, but costs for treating extracted vapors and liquids are low compared to the costs of technologies requiring excavation. The technologies are relatively simple to install, can be used effectively in combination with other treatment technologies, and are effective under a variety of site conditions.
Will SVE or Air Sparging work at every site?
SVE and Air Sparging may be good choices at sites contaminated with solvents and other volatile organic compounds (such as trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) and fuels. Because properties of the soil have such an important effect on the movement of soil vapors, the performance and design of SVE and Air Sparging systems depend greatly on the properties of the soil. SVE is best used at sites with loose unsaturated soil, such as sand, gravel, and coarse silt or fractured bedrock. However, it has been applied to sites with denser soils, although treatment may take longer. Also, the higher the moisture content of the soil, the slower SVE works.
What is Dual Phase extraction?
Dual phase extraction is a treatment system similar to SVE, but the extraction wells are sunk more deeply into the ground-below the water table into the saturated zone. Strong vacuum is applied through the extraction wells to simultaneously remove groundwater and vapors from the subsurface. Once above ground, the extracted vapors and groundwater are separated and treated. Dual phase extraction is more effective than SVE at sites with dense, clayey soil. When dual-phase extraction is combined with bioremediation, Air Sparging or bioventing, it can shorten cleanup times.
Soil remediation
For the clean-up of contaminated soil Prantner can provide soil vapour extraction units (Type BDL). In this process the pollutants are removed from the soil by sucking them out with a vacuum.
Hệ thống hút chân không 2300 ACFM với  chất ôxy hóa nhiệt Bio-Sparging và tái sinh


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